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Central Bornean orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii ) in natural habitat. Tropical Rainforest of Borneo. Indonesia. By Sergey Uryadnikov | Shutterstock.com

Edge effects and habitat fragmentation: the main causes of species extinction

The science of conservation biology was developed during the seventies and eighties, when society started to become aware of the importance of addressing the...
Urban Gardening, Malacca, Malaysia. By Jakob Fischer | Shutterstock.com

Living cities: 4 practical ways you can help local wildlife

Today, 55% of the world’s population lives in urban areas and, by 2050, the proportion is expected to reach 68%. Urbanisation can bring great...
Wolf tracks (footprint) in the frozen snow. By Maksymus | Shutterstock.com

Field guide: identifying animal footprints, traces and signs

Habitat loss or destruction is a direct consequence of our current economic and social system, as well as one of the greatest threats to...
Portrait of a typical traditional family of farmers with their cow. By HQuality | Shutterstock.com

Beyond veganism: Capitalism, Feminism and Self-awareness

Talking about the pros and cons of veganism has become a sort of war of words. Anyone who holds a position on either side...
Peacock with spread wings in profile. By Viliam.M | Shutterstock.com

Animal communication: honest, dishonest and costly signalling

How do animals communicate? Animal communication is the transfer of information between individuals and groups of animals. This could be intraspecies communication, such as sounds...
Sexual selection. Great crested grebe. By Pim Leijen | Shutterstock.com

Reproductive strategies and mating systems: the foundations of sexual selection in animals

For many years, it has been been thought that living beings were basically organisms that are born, grow, reproduce and die, or that they...
White Camargue Horses galloping through water. Parc Regional de Camargue - Provence, France. By Sergey Uryadnikov | Shutterstock.com

Animal’s social behavior: Group living

The need for socialization is not exclusive to human beings. Instances of social activity can be found in many species in the animal kingdom....
Migrating grey cranes over Agamon Hula bird refuge, at sunrise. Hula Valley, North of Israel. By Alla Khananashvili | Shutterstock.com

Creatures on the move: understanding animal migration

When you think of animal migration, which animals first come to mind? Geese? Seabirds? Well, it’s true that many birds migrate during the year....
Fennec fox. By hagit berkovich | Shutterstock.com

Too hot? Too cold? How animals survive in extreme temperatures

In Barcelona, summer has just arrived. Temperatures are rising and behaviours begin to change. We start to drink more, wear less and switch on...
Knobbed Hornbill, Rhyticeros cassidix, from Sulawesi, Indonesia. By Ondrej Prosicky | Shutterstock.com

Birds, their different beaks and the functions they perform

Birds are a class of vertebrates with more than 18,000 different species. Of the various features that are common to all birds, perhaps the...
Tiny chameleon Brookesia micra on human inch, smallest known chameleon and among the smallest reptiles of the world. Antsiranana Province, Madagascar wildlife. By Artush | Shutterstock.com

Why does dwarfism occur in nature? Pygmy animals and their evolution

Size matters in the animal world. In colder climates, being large helps minimise the loss of body heat. For a large predator, body size...
Humpback Whale Heatrun. By Tomas Kotouc | Shutterstock.com

Cetaceans. The small and giant mammals of the oceans

We’re all able to recognise a dolphin, an orca or one of the whale species. These animals are part of the order of cetaceans...
View of two beaches on Bartolome Island in the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador. By Jess Kraft | Shutterstock.com

Re-imagining the wild: the art of nature writing, past and present

What is nature writing? Nature writing in not a single genre. It’s a term that encompasses a great range of literary forms. Whether it’s a...
Two male lions. By Nick Biemans | Shutterstock.com

Are there gay animals in nature? Homosexuality in the animal world

When it comes to homosexuality, for many people the recurring idea is that it’s something unnatural. But what does unnatural really mean? The definition...
Ant. By Balkhi | Shutterstock.com

Insatiable invertebrates: 4 predatory insects and arachnids

What’s the difference between insects and arachnids? Class insecta Of the 1.5 million species that scientists have catalogued, around two thirds are insects. Insects come in all...